Why can't it be used in cats? Whereas all animal species are susceptible, to ethylene glycol toxicity, cats … An ultrasound examination and ultrasound-guided kidney biopsy for diagnosis if the pet is presented in kidney failure. The symptoms of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs come in three stages that get progressively worse the longer an affected dog goes without treatment. Ethylene glycol is metabolized similarly to ETHANOL thus it is not surprising that animals show ataxia & CNs depression approx. Since it has a wider margin of safety as compared to its chemical cousin, ethylene glycol, it is commonly used to absorb extra water and maintain moisture in certain medicines, cosmetics, or dog and human food products. Gastric lavage (pumping the stomach) also is indicated if your pet is seen within a few hours of ethylene glycol ingestion. It is a colorless, odorless, and sweet-tasting solution. In cats, ingestion of a diet containing 6%–12% PG can result in Heinz body formation and decreased RBC survival. Diagnostic tests are needed to recognize ethylene glycol toxicosis. Ethylene glycol itself is not toxic, but it is metabolized in the animal’s body to several extremely toxic chemicals that are responsible for its potentially lethal effects. Peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis are available for animals that have developed severe kidney failure and are not producing urine despite intravenous fluid, furosemide and dopamine administration. Such pets never develop kidney failure and are discharged from the hospital after a few days of treatment and observation. These signs include vomiting, ataxia/drunken gait, disorientation, and increased thirst and urination. Fomepizole is expensive but life-saving when administered to dogs within the first 8-12 hours of ingestion. Affiliate Disclosure: Evolve Media LLC, and its owned and operated websites may receive a small commission from the proceeds of any product(s) sold through affiliate and direct partner links. It is an extremely dangerous toxin and the lethal dose for dogs is 2-3 ml/lb, and for cats it is 0.64 ml/lb. Without treatment, permanent organ damage or death may occur. Deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney result in a very bright (white on the ultrasound monitor) appearance within hours, Kidney biopsy to confirm ethylene glycol poisoning if kidney failure is present, Induction of vomiting by oral administration of hydrogen peroxide if possible before transport of the pet to the veterinary hospital, Hospitalization of the pet usually is necessary, Induction of vomiting (if not successful before arrival) and gastric lavage (pumping of the stomach) to remove the poison before it can be broken down to its toxic end-products, Administration of activated charcoal to bind ethylene glycol within the digestive tract, Intravenous fluid administration to correct dehydration, Treatment with sodium bicarbonate if acidosis is severe, Specific drugs such as 20 percent ethyl alcohol or 4-methylpyrazole (Antizol®) that inhibit the breakdown of ethylene glycol to its toxic end-products if the pet is seen within several hours after ingestion of ethylene glycol, Drugs to treat kidney failure and encourage urine production such as the diuretic furosemide and blood vessel-dilating drug dopamine. Amoroso L, Cocumelli C(1), Bruni G, Brozzi A, Tancredi F, Grifoni G, Mastromattei A, Meoli R, Di Guardo G, Eleni C. Author information: (1)Istituto Zoopro lattico Sperimentale del Lazio e della Toscana "M. Aleandri", Rome, Italy. These procedures require referral to a veterinary specialist. Excreted via kidneys. Propylene glycol poisoning in dogs is caused by ingesting propylene glycol. Oxalate crystal formation → renal tubular damage. © 2020 All rights reserved. That is roughly 16 mL of 50% ethylene glycol for an 80 kg adult and 4 mL for a 20 kg child. Ingestion of ethylene glycol (EG) is a frequently encountered toxicity in dogs and cats. Some animals with severe kidney failure due to ethylene glycol poisoning die despite dialysis support. He has also been trembling. Characteristic alterations in the hemogram and serum chemical profile included neutrophilia, lymphopenia, azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hyperglycemia, and decreased whole blood bicarbonate. The accumulation of glycolate and the elimination kinetics of EG and its metabolites are not well understood, so studies with male Sprague-Dawley rats and mixed breed dogs have been carried out. Garbage ingestion. 4-MP does not produce “drunkenness,” but it cannot be used in cats. Serum biochemistry tests to evaluate for low blood calcium concentration (hypocalcemia) that may occur soon after ethylene glycol ingestion. The goal of this treatment is to eliminate ethylene glycol from the body before it can cause significant damage. Use antifreeze products that do not contain ethylene glycol like Prestone LowTox® or Sierra®. Activated charcoal is administered via a stomach tube or by syringe to the animal to prevent further absorption of ethylene glycol from the digestive tract. Bicarbonate may be given to reduce metabolic acidosis, a condition where toxins cause the body’s pH level to fall too low. EG is found in antifreeze (95% solution), windshield de-icing agents, and some industrial solvents (detergents, photographic developing solutions, brake fluid, motor oil, paints, wood stains, and polishes). A biopsy is recommended to confirm the diagnosis of acute kidney failure due to ethylene glycol poisoning because of the extensive treatment required and the poor prognosis. Activated charcoal binds ethylene glycol in the stomach and allows it to pass through the digestive tract to be eliminated in the stool. Other diseases present symptoms similar to those observed in ethylene glycol toxicity. The test is only accurate if performed within 6 to 12 hours of ingestion. If you see any of the following first stage signs, it’s important that you provide immediate medical attention for your dog: The symptoms of the second stage of ethylene glycol toxicity can be deceptive, as a dog’s condition may seem to improve during this time, even though the situation is becoming more dire. Potential sources of ethylene glycol in the environment include antifreeze (the most common source of ethylene glycol poisoning), air-conditioning coolants, brake fluid, heat exchange fluids from so… Call your veterinarian immediately if your pet has consumed ethylene glycol. Although less toxic than EG, ingestion of propylene glycol (PG) may be associated with a toxic syndrome similar to the acute phase of EG toxicosis. Dog was treated with 7% IV ethanol and did fine. 2 Ethylene glycol is most commonly found in automotive antifreeze and is also used as a precursor to industrial polymers. There is no known exposure to drugs, medications, toxins, compost, garbage, etc. Treatment for ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs may not require hospitalization if it begins within five hours of ingestion. Dogtime is a property of TotallyHer Media, LLC, an Evolve Media, LLC company. Food Hazards. “Renal damage is thought to be secondary to calcium oxalate deposition, and crystalluria is a consistent finding in ethylene glycol poisoning. Ingestion of sufficient quantities of avocado fruit is most likely to cause myocardial necrosis in which of the following species? Overview of Ethylene Glycol Toxicity. The available information on the acute and subchronic toxicity of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether is reviewed. How do you protect your dog from antifreeze poisoning in winter months? All Rights Reserved, Complete medical history and physical examination, Ethylene glycol test should be performed as soon after ingestion as possible, Urinalysis to evaluate for characteristic calcium oxalate crystals (one of the metabolic end-products of ethylene glycol breakdown), casts, and other evidence of kidney damage, Blood gas analysis to evaluate for the presence of severe acidosis, Serum biochemistry tests to evaluate for electrolyte disturbances (including low blood calcium) and abnormally high kidney function tests (blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, serum phosphorus), Abdominal ultrasound examination to evaluate kidney size and appearance. Treatment requires 2 to 3 days. Ethylene glycol has a sweet taste and dogs will consume it readily. Peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis is necessary if severe kidney failure and shutdown of urine production are present. This treatment will focus on correcting fluid imbalances and electrolytes, as well as reducing the effects of acidosis. If kidney failure already is present (based on observation of high kidney function test results and lack of urine production) the prognosis for recovery is very poor. Unfortunately, in many cases the owner is not aware that the pet has consumed ethylene glycol and first recognizes the non-specific signs of severe acute kidney failure such as lethargy, loss of appetite, vomiting. Acute pancreatitis. Many animals will voluntarily drink ethylene glycol if antifreeze is spilled or leaks onto garage floors or driveways. Prevent access of pets to areas where ethylene glycol-containing products may be stored or spilled like the garage or driveway. Ethylene glycol damages doggie kidneys by acting as a magnet for calcium. An chemical test to detect ethylene glycol in the blood. This may result from other types of toxins, trauma and infection. A cathartic may be given with the activated charcoal to speed its movement through the digestive tract. Consumption of the fruit, seed, stem, or leaves of avocados can cause toxicity in animals. Propylene Glycol Toxicosis. Ethylene glycol toxicosis is a type of poisoning that occurs in dogs after ingestion of antifreeze or other fluids containing the ingredient ethylene glycol. Aldehydes cause central nervous system (CNS) toxicity. Max has no prior history of seizures to the owners’ knowledge, but they have owned him for only three months. Phosphorus binding drugs such as aluminum hydroxide may be given to bind phosphorus in the digestive tract. Transport your pet to your veterinarian immediately. Acute kidney failure. These signs develop within 30 minutes to 12 hours after ingestion of ethylene glycol depending on the amount ingested. Common clinical signs were ataxia, depression, vomiting, and hypothermia. Treatment at that point aims at reducing symptoms. If you see the signs of the condition in your dog, call the ASPCA pet poison hotline at (888) 426-4435 or consult an emergency veterinarian immediately so they can begin treatment. Ethylene glycol toxicity: a retrospective pathological study in cats. Antifreeze products containing propylene glycol cause signs of drunkenness but are not fatal unless very large quantities are consumed, in which case death is the result of alcohol poisoning. ADDITIONAL CONTENT Test your knowledge. Definitive treatment should be started as soon as possible after consumption of ethylene glycol (within a few hours). There are 15 ml in a tablespoon, so 2 tablespoons (30ml) could be lethal for a 15-pound dog, and less than one-half of a tablespoon is lethal to a 10-pound cat. Serum biochemistry tests also help identify electrolyte disturbances, like abnormal blood sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations, and help evaluate other organ systems, for example liver function and pancreas function, which will help your veterinarian eliminate other diagnostic possibilities. Ethylene glycol toxicosis is a type of poisoning that occurs in dogs after ingestion of antifreeze or other fluids containing the ingredient ethylene glycol. Abnormal kidney function tests, like high blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum phosphorus, will be observed if acute kidney failure has developed between 12 and 72 hours after ingestion of ethylene glycol. It may take weeks of treatment before kidney function returns to normal. Examples of these diseases include: Veterinary care should include diagnostic tests and subsequent treatment recommendations. Failure to identify calcium oxalate crystals in the urine does not rule out the possibility of ethylene glycol poisoning because crystal formation may cease within a few days of poisoning. Ethylene glycol is the ingredient found in most antifreeze products, usually at a concentration of 95-97%. Dialysis may also be needed to filter waste from the blood. Your veterinarian may recommend you give your pet hydrogen peroxide by mouth to induce vomiting before you transport the animal to the hospital. EG is rapidly absorbed from the GI tract; in dogs, blood concentrations of EG peak within 3 hr of ingestion. Ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs, or antifreeze poisoning, happens when dogs consume the odorless, sweet-tasting ingredient ethylene glycol, commonly found antifreeze. Acidosis (acidic blood) can also be detected through the biochemistry profile. It’s especially important in winter months to watch for the symptoms of ethylene glycol toxicity in dogs. Both drugs must be used within 6 to 8 hours after ingestion of ethylene glycol, and drug choice is determined by drug availability. Despite its bright color, antifreeze may be hard to spot when it gets covered in snow or slush. Call your veterinarian immediately if you suspect your dog to have consumed ethylene glycol. It’s critical to begin treatment within the first four hours of ingestion in … I have treated ethylene glycol intoxication with both 4MP and vodka and hands down 4MP is the way to go from the management standpoint. Ethylene glycol toxicity in a dog. but he is free to roam three acres … These causes of kidney failure are distinguished from that caused by ethylene glycol by laboratory tests, abdominal ultrasound and kidney biopsy. Treatment for ethylene glycol poisoning includes the antidote fomepizole (also known as 4-MP) or ethanol. The following second stage symptoms can appear within twelve to 24 hours of consuming ethylene glycol: The symptoms of the third stage of ethylene glycol toxicity occur within 36 to 72 hours after consuming the substance. Twenty percent ethanol produces nervous system signs of “drunkenness” but can be used both in dogs and cats. The minimum lethal dose of ethylene glycol is 4-6 ml/kg body weight in dogs.” According to Pet Poison Helpline, common signs … Dogs that roam outside unsupervised are more likely to encounter ethylene glycol in antifreeze which has been disposed of improperly. Do you have any tips for other pet parents? Here are the final symptoms of the condition: (Picture Credit: JIM WATSON/AFP/Getty Images). Eg cause severe metabolic acidosis examples of these diseases include: Veterinary care should include diagnostic tests are needed recognize. 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