DESCRIPCIÓN: Nos encontramos ante una imagen de los relieves el Ara Pacis, construido alrededor del 13-9 a. C., las tallas están realizadas en mármol y corresponden al Alto Imperio Romano.Se trata de representar una procesión votiva, o celebración del fin de las conquistas en Hispania y la Galia. After Loewy's 1926 article, consensus shifted to Gaius Caesar. Flashcards. Italy, Rome. The Artists of the Ara Pacis: The Process of Hellenization in Roman... Pantheon: A New History of Roman Religion, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Gravity. It is my purpose in this article to discuss the interpretation of the relief from the Ara Pacis, now in the Uffizi Gallery, which is traditionally known as the “Tellus relief” (plate IV). [3] This new structure is much bigger than the previous one and it is divided into multiple rooms and sections besides the main one containing the altar. The last portion of the North Frieze consists of members of the imperial family. Processional sequence from the southern side, slab with Augustus and priests. Flashcards. BC, the Ara Pacis Augustae in Rome is one of the most important pieces of Augustan propaganda that is still extant. In February 1937, the Italian Cabinet decreed that for the 2000th anniversary of the birth of Augustus, the excavations should recommence, using the most advanced technology. Nicolai Ouroussoff, of The New York Times called the building "a contemporary expression of what can happen when an architect fetishizes his own style out of a sense of self-aggrandizement. The monument consists of a traditional open-air altar at its centre surrounded by precinct walls which are pierced on the eastern and western ends (so called today because of the modern layout) by openings and elaborately and finely sculpted entirely in Luna marble. John Pollini, "Ahenobarbi, Appuleii and Some Others on the Ara Pacis". Practice: Augustus of Primaporta . Syme also proved somewhat unintentionally, based on the inscription ILS 6095 that Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus was governor of Africa in 13 BC and could not be in Rome for the Ara Pacis ceremony. Early empire. Keywords: Ara Pacis, colour symbolism, Roman public monuments, Latin literature, Classical rhetoric. [44], Starting in 1894, Eugen Petersen suggested that Lucius Caesar appears between Augustus (this veiled figure is actually Agrippa) and Livia (actually Julia). This helps prove that the ceremony is an event in 13, although a few scholars continued to argue the ceremony was that of 9 BC (until definitive proof in favor of 13 came out in 1939). Other figures wear laurel crowns, traditional Roman symbols of victory. Una galleria, in “La Rivista di Engramma” n. 58 giugno/agosto 2007, Simona Dolari, Riscoperta e fortuna dei rilievi dell'Ara Pacis nell'età della Rinascita, in “La Rivista di Engramma” n. 75 ottobre/novembre 200, Simona Dolari, Ara Pacis 1938. [33] Furthermore, Livia has no bond to Agrippa, whereas Julia was his wife and expected to be the unofficial empress of Rome for decades, during and beyond Augustus' lifetime. The program of the Ara Pacis addressed this group's very real fears of cyclical history, and promised that the rule of Augustus would avert the cataclysmic destruction of the world predicted by contemporary models of historical thought. The city plans to build a wide pedestrian area along the river and run the road underneath it. Absurdly over-scale, it seems indifferent to the naked beauty of the dense and richly textured city around it. [23] Many scholars, realizing by 1935 that Lucius was too young to be the boy beside Agrippa, preferred to identify him as Gaius. Mario Torelli (1982, 60 n. 72), called her suggestion "perfect nonsense". Ara Pacis Museum Rome, Italy The Ara Pacis Museum, located along the Tiber River, near the Ponte Cavour, on the western edge of the Piazza Augusto Imperatore, is an integral part of the urban context of the Augustean Area. As Rizzo has observed, it is "fra tutti gli altri relievi dell' Ara Pacis quella maggiormente piena di pensiero e di [1] Their identification by their non-Roman costume and their participation in the ceremony advertises to all that Rome is the centre of the world, and that other nations send their young to Rome to learn Roman ways, so great is Rome's reputation. Introduction. The platform of the altar was surrounded by a high screen wall, embellished with … Ara Pacis. The altar is originally located on northern Rome, with Via Flaminia located on the east and Campus Martius on the west, and is close to River Tibet. [55], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}41°54′23″N 12°28′32″E / 41.90639°N 12.47556°E / 41.90639; 12.47556, The first protective building housing the monument by architect Morpurgo, The new protective building housing the monument by architect Meier, The first protective building housing the monument by architect, The new protective building housing the monument by architect. Tellus Panel on the Ara Pacis Augustae. Seventy cubic meters of ground under what was by then the, The fragments, although not complete, were collected and joined together to rebuild the Ara; due to the short time available (work had to be completed before 23 September 1938, the last day of the Augustan anniversary), few fragments available and poor historical sources to refer to for restoration (basically a couple of ancient Roman coins), the reconstruction had to be performed with the help of Italian artist, Peter J. Holliday, "Time, History, and Ritual on the Ara Pacis Augustae", High-resolution 360° Panoramas and Images of, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 14:04. Surprisingly, a majority of scholars in 2000 preferred to see this figure as Livia. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. The north wall has about 46 extant or partially extant figures. The timelessness and grandeur of the image results from its roots in antiquity. The new cover building, which has been named "Ara Pacis museum", now stands on the same site as Mussolini's structure. Today Augustus is better recognized by his hair style than his face. 19. In 1932 demolition of buildings surrounding the mausoleum, decided in 1909, started, together with many other demolitions carried on in those years in the city. to commemorate Augustus' conquering of … Tellus (or Pax) Panel, Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) 9 B.C.E. In 1926, Loewy compared the Ara Pacis Agrippa to the Louvre Agrippa and the Agrippa in Copenhagen (and elsewhere) in order to demonstrate the iconographical similarity. [22] Other figures in the entourage might include Marcella Major (a daughter of Octavia), Iullus Antonius (a son of Mark Antony), and two boys and a girl of the imperial family. represents peace & prosperity the Bringing of an era of peace in rome "Golden Age of Rome " I personally think its art, not only because its a carving but because the carving itself has a meaning . diss. Ryberg's 1949 article gave further weight to that conclusion. The relief figures on the north and south exterior walls are arranged in two groups. Augustus of Primaporta. mtu5446. This interpretation, although widely accepted, can not be proved correct, as so little of the original panel survives. PALAZZO FIANO. 1) For the identification of the figure as polysemantic, referring to a combination of divinities, see K. Hannell, "Das Opfer des Augustus an der Ara Pacis," OpRom 2 (1960) 117-23 (Tellus… His adopted son (also stepson and former son-in-law), Tiberius, succeeded him to the throne. Musée L. Louvain-la-neuve, Brussels. He may have died from natural causes, although unconfirmed rumors swirled that his wife Livia poisoned him. Set up in honor of Augustus. Ara pacis 1. The lower portion of the exterior walls has richly sculpted acanthus scrolls whilst the upper portions carry relief figures. Pax / Italia / Tellus / Venus relief, the most intensely studied and reinterpreted of any of the frontal relief panels on the Ara Pacis. The Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) is a sacrificial altar commissioned by the Roman Senate on July 4, 13 BC to honor the triumphal return of emperor Augustus from his campaigns in Hispania (Spain) and Gaul (France). The Ara Pacis, a monument to Augustus Caesar and an altar for religious celebration of peace, perfectly exemplified Augustusí program of cultural revival and captured the spirit of his reign through its Golden Age motif. Created by. [29][30][31][32] The identification dates back to Milani in 1891. Scholars have variously suggested that the goddess is Italia, Tellus (Earth), Venus, and Peace, although other views also circulate. Ara Pacis Augustae: Tellus Mater Panel. It is currently housed in the Ara Pacis Museum, dedicated in 2006 (designed by Richard Meier) which presents the history and rediscovery of the altar with rich multimedia displays, panels, and models. 2003). The interior of the precinct walls are carved with bucrania, ox skulls, from which carved garlands hang. Storia di una anastilosi difficile, in “La Rivista di Engramma” n. 75 ottobre/novembre 2009, Official web site of the Ara Pacis Museum of Rome, English version, Comprehensive, high quality photo documentation of the Ara Pacis Augustae, Several pages with photos of the sculpture, "Roman Power and Roman Imperial Sculpture", Ara Pacis Bibliography annotated with links, Boncompagni Ludovisi Decorative Art Museum, Museo Storico Nazionale dell'Arte Sanitaria,, 1st-century BC religious buildings and structures, Ancient Roman buildings and structures in Rome, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In 1568, the first fragmentary sculptures were rediscovered beneath, In 1859 further sculptural fragments were found in the same area under the, In 1909 it was decided that several buildings closely surrounding the, Between 1918 and 1921 the President of the. Date: 13-9 B.C. This photo was taken from a distance with a telephoto lens. Gaius Stern, "Nero’s Father and Other Romantic Figures on the Ara Pacis Augustae", Sir Ronald Syme, "Neglected Children on the Ara Pacis", in. Gaius Stern, "Women Children and Senators on the Ara Pacis Augustae" Berk. [40] As this campaign is known to have begun in 2 BC,[41] it means that Gnaeus must have been of mature age by that time, therefore requiring a birth year of at least 17 BC, which would, in turn, make him sufficiently old to be the boy on the Ara Pacis. There are two entrances, one on the east and the other on the west (back) side, the latter having a short flight of steps due to the lower ground elevation on that side in its original position. The interior sculpture of the surrounding walls depicts fruit and flower garlands hanging from ox heads (bucrania) above fluting. On its exterior, the Ara Pacis also presents the so-called ‘Fregio della Processione’, the ‘littori and … This is the currently selected item. Tellus (or Pax) Panel, Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) 9 B.C.E. Charles Brian Rose wrote "The variable value of the Eastern costume and the uneasy interaction of Trojan and Parthian iconography can make it difficult to determine whether one is viewing the founders of the Romans or their fiercest opponents", in "The Parthians in Augustan Rome,", pile of weapons confiscated from the enemy, "Scheda 6 FORMAZIONE DELLA CITTA' INDUSTRIALE XIX secolo", "I just don't get modern art, says Italy's culture minister", Riferimenti diretti all'Ara Pacis Augustae nelle fonti letterarie e iconografiche antiche. In the 1960s, Stephan Weinstock challenged this identification (and the very identity of the entire monument), citing numerous discrepancies that Sieveking and his followers had failed to notice between Vergil's version and the panel. Edificio ... En el registro de la cara este ( opuesto a la puerta ) se representa a la diosa de la Tierra Tellus y su abundancia , que lleva en sus brazos a dos niños y rodeada de plantas , frutos y animales . The entryways were flanked by panels depicting allegorical or mythological scenes evocative of peace, piety and tradition. The outer sides of its four walls are carved with relief [37] A. von Domaszewski amended this family identification and correctly saw the child as Germanicus. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (19) original date: 13 - 9 BC. The Ara Pacis was built between 13 and 9 BC, and is a key monument for the display of the Augustan principles. Ara Pacis Augustae (Vienna 1902); H. Riemann, "Pacis Ara ... monly called the Tellus or Italia relief, and its char-acter fully justifies such an investigation. In this In 1938 the finally reconstructed Ara was placed near the Mausoleum of Augustus, and a big pavilion was built around it by architect Vittorio Ballio Morpurgo as part of Benito Mussolini's attempt to create an ancient Roman "theme park" to glorify Fascist Italy. Die Frauendarstellung auf der Ara Pacis Augustae unter besonderer Berücksichtigung... Der Altar Des Kaiserfriedens Ara Pacis Augustae. A relief panel with the goddess Tellus, two children and two female figures, symbol of fertility, with the elements of water riding a sea monster and air riding a swan. In 1907, this scene was identified by Johannes Sieveking[15] as the moment when Aeneas, newly arrived in Italy, sacrificed a sow and her 30 piglets to Juno, as told by Virgil and others, even though the scene differs greatly from Vergil's description. John Pollini, The Portraiture of Gaius and Lucius Caesar, (1987), 24–26. The whole structure, including the reliefs, would have been richly painted and have had touches of gilding. Mitt in the 1930s was Ludwig Curtius), the rest of the academy concluded that this figure is Agrippa. Tellus/Pax panel of Ara Pacis; Roman, 13-9 BCE This is one of the enclosure walls at the eastern entrance of the Altar of Peace. ... others think it represents the inauguration of the Ara Pacis itself, the ceremony of 13 B.C. Sieveking later reversed his position with a series of peculiar suggestions. Spell. Spell. Stern claims that these figures cannot possibly be the Domitii Ahenobarbi, on the basis of the belief that Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, whom von Domaszewski saw as the boy of the family, was born after the monument's completion. Essay by Dr. Jeffrey Becker. This same figure in Hellenistic dress has also been interpreted as Ptolemy of Mauretania representing Africa, along with the German boy (Europe) and the Parthian prince (Asia). The cornice of the surrounding wall is a modern addition and is, therefore, plain whereas the original cornice would have been highly decorative with palmettes at each corner. Google Classroom Facebook Twitter. Within the enclosing precinct walls, the altar itself was carved with images illustrating the lex aria, the law governing the ritual performed at the altar. Two very badly damaged figures in the middle are split by a gap. Ara pacis fregio lato nord2 saturnia tellus.jpg 999 × 688; 532 KB Ara Pacis relief 03 - replica in Pushkin museum by shakko.jpg 4,060 × 2,847; 3.74 MB Ara Pacis Relief Pax.jpg 2,758 × 1,992; 3.13 MB [3] Originally located on the northern outskirts of Rome, a Roman mile from the boundary of the pomerium on the west side of the Via Flaminia,[4] the Ara Pacis stood in the northeastern corner of the Campus Martius, the former flood plain of the Tiber River and gradually became buried under 4 metres (13 ft) of silt deposits. Cartwright, M. (2013, October 13). Meier's building construction caused new arguments and criticism, after the ones which accompanied the first building construction, both from Roman inhabitants and foreign observers, probably due both to political memory tied to the pre-existing pavilion and to the visual impact of the new pavilion, which in the opinion of many is in stark contrast with surrounding historical buildings. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 13 Oct 2013. The other panel is more controversial in its subject, but far better preserved. Altar des Kaiserfriedens, Ara Pacis Augustae (Leipzig 1908) 14-16; de Grummond 663-77. photo July-Oct. 2008 "Entire figure of the child, except his hand and right leg, is a [probably early] reconstruction, as is the nearby hand of Tellus and the adjacent piece of drapery". The Ara Pacis is an exciting example of Roman sculpture in the early times. The structure has a central altar set on a podium surrounded by high walls (11.6 x 10.6 m) composed of large rectangular slabs. The bucrania in turn evoke the idea of sacrificial piety, appropriate motifs for the interior of the altar precinct. The altar is originally located on northern Rome, with Via Flaminia located on the east and Campus Martius on the west, and is close to River Tibet. It was reassembled in its current location, now the Museum of the Ara Pacis, in 1938, turned 90° from its original orientation so that the original western side now faces south. On the eastern wall, panels depicted the seated figures of Roma and Pax, while the western side depicts the discovery of the twins and she-wolf and the sacrifice of a figure traditionally identified as Aeneas, but increasingly believed to be Rome's second king, Numa Pompilius. Ara Pacis. The Ara Pacis,a monument to Augustus Caesar and an altar for religious celebration of peace, perfectly exemplified Augustusí program of cultural revival and captured the spirit of his reign through its Golden Age motif. On the north side are officials such as magistrates, senators, priests and their families. The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, "Altar of Augustan Peace"; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar in Rome dedicated to Pax, the Roman goddess of Peace.The monument was commissioned by the Roman Senate on July 4, 13 BC to honour the return of Augustus to Rome after three years in Hispania and Gaul and consecrated on January 30, 9 BC. Altar of Augustus, 13 - 9 BCE, marble, Rome. The historic Fascist style building around the Altar, locally known as "teca del Morpurgo", was pulled down in 2006, and replaced by a glass and steel structure in modern style, designed by architect Richard Meier. Learn. ARA PACIS AUGUSTAE Actual Museu de L’Ara Pacis, cambra de vidre de Richard Meier, 2006. "[51] Former mayor Gianni Alemanno, backed in July 2008 by culture undersecretary Francesco Maria Giro, pledged to tear down the new structure. They named the smallest child on the North Frieze "Lucius," even though he is a mere toddler (Lucius was four in 13 BC). Related Content Once that is eliminated, the idea of opening the piazza to the river is a good one." He also suggested that the Ara Pacis is arranged in family groups. Stern adds the costume is wrong for a Trojan (no Phrygian hat) and no bulla – worn by all Roman boys as protection from the evil eye. The general motif of a figure lifting drapery to expose her face can be traced back to the Ara Pacis (13 BC) in Rome, where the figures of Tellus (Earth), Venus and Peace are framed by drapery in a similar fashion. Test. The clarity of the volumes and the building’s proportions relate in scale to Rome’s ancient structures. Head and bust of Tellus after small previous inserts (described in caption to photo at left) had been replaced. Visitors entering the large hall made of glass and steel now housing the Ara Pacis will first see the western side of the enclosure, with a flight of stairs leading to the altar within. It is a beautiful relief of a seated mother goddess (see detail of goddess and infants and close-up of face). Various figures in togas are shown with their heads covered (capite velato), signifying their role as both priests and sacrificiants. Indeed, Livia does appear somewhere (her exclusion is unlikely), but by 13 BC Julia had politically eclipsed Livia, as has been understood and explained by many scholars. If this toddler were Lucius, he would be too young and in the wrong costume for the Troy Games. Although the name suggests this college has exactly fifteen members, the size of the college has grown to 23, including Augustus and Agrippa, who appear on the South Frieze. Email. Learn. SOURCE: Roma Panel on the Ara Pacis Augustae (Rome, Lazio, Italy); photographed by Stephen J. Danko on 11 August 2011. One member of this college is missing in a gap. The ceremony took place in the summer of 13 BC, but not necessarily on 4 July, when the Senate voted to build the Ara Pacis. ACTUAL... Divendres 21 de gener de 2011. “Well, there it is. Augustus died in 14 CE at the age of 75. Ara Pacis Augustae 2. [52][53][54] He later changed his stance on the building and has agreed with Mr. Meier to modifications including drastically reducing the height of the wall between an open-air space outside the museum and a busy road along the Tiber river. Pollini also reasons that the delay in Gnaeus' career (only reaching the consulship in 32 AD) resulted from his documented unpleasant character and points out that the careers of other members of the family with undesirable traits also suffered similar delays, notably Augustus' youngest grandson, Agrippa Postumus, who had no career, and Germanicus' brother, the later emperor, Claudius, whose career started late. e.g. A goddess sits amid a scene of fertility and prosperity with twins on her lap. Ara Pacis Augustae. The platform of the altar was surrounded by a high screen wall, embellished with … Members of individual priestly colleges are depicted in traditional garb appropriate to their office,[7] while lictors can be identified by their iconographic fasces. Ara Pacis - Saturnia Tellus Appunto di storia dell'arte con l'analisi del rilievo definito "Saturnia Tellus" presente su uno dei quattro lati brevi dell'Ara Pacis. The sacrificial procession depicts animals being led to sacrifice by figures carved in a Republican style similar to the so-called "Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus", in sharp contrast with the style on the exterior of the precinct walls. The youth wearing Hellenistic Greek clothing suited to a Hellenistic prince has been identified as Gaius in the guise of a camillus,[25] an adolescent attendant of the Flamen Dialis. Gemma Augustea. Ara Pacis: Tellus Relief. Ceres' name may derive from the hypothetical Proto-Indo-European root ker, meaning "to grow", which is also a possible root for "create" and "increase". On this particular freize, there is a mother figure surrounded by grains, harvest foods, cattle, and flowers. In referring to the location of reliefs on the altar, I have This high relief panel depicts Tellus Mater (Mother Earth) and is an allegory of the prosperity during Augustus’s reign (27 BCE-14 CE). After them follows the collegium of the quindecimviri sacris faciundis, also identified by the incense box carried by a public slave among them. Tellus (or Pax) Panel, Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) 9 B.C.E. The altar reflects the Augustan vision of Roman civil religion. Ancient History Encyclopedia. D. Castriota ar-gued for iconographical motifs connected with Venus on the Ara Pacis: "The Floral Symbolism of the Ara Pacis," Abstracts, 72nd Annual Meeting of the College Art Association (1984) 3. The long friezes of the Ara Pacis (the North and South Walls) contain figures advancing towards the West, who participate in a state of thanksgiving to celebrate the Peace created by Augustus. From photos, the gap appears to affect a single figure, but as Koeppel, Conlin, and Stern have proven, in-site examination reveals that one is a foreground and the other a background figure.[21]. STUDY. Greek influences of the Ara Pacis (440-430BC) Augustus wanted to link himself with the success and achievements of 5th Century Periklean Athens (and link it to his rule) Influenced in style od decoration, … Ara Pacis Augustae is important for it is a symbol of the Roman peace, Pax Romana, and civil religion and rituals. The lower register of its frieze depicts vegetal work meant to communicate the abundance and prosperity of the Roman Peace (Latin: Pax Augusta), while the monument as a whole serves a civic ritual function whilst simultaneously operating as propaganda for Augustus and his regime, easing notions of autocracy and dynastic succession that might otherwise be unpalatable to traditional Roman culture. Campus Martius (Field of Mars) Why was the Ara Pacis built? The so-called “Tellus” (Mother Earth) relief, located to the left of the main entrance of the Ara Pacis. The Tellus Mater Panel of the Ara Pacis: The eastern wall of the Ara Pacis, which depicts the Tellus Mater surrounded by symbols of fertility and prosperity. (Ara Pacis Museum, Rome) (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) The better preserved panel of the east wall depicts a seated female figure (above) who has been variously interpreted as Tellus (the Earth), Italia (Italy), Pax (Peace), as well as Venus. All are captured in a single moment as they participate in a procession. [43] Syme had also argued that Gnaeus was born after the monument's completion, but accepted the identification of the Ahenobarbus family, preferring to identify the boy as an otherwise unknown elder brother and the girl figure as an otherwise unknown elder sister of Gnaeus—both of whom died young. The Ara Pacis is seen to embody without conscious effort the deep-rooted ideological connections among cosmic sovereignty, military force, and fertility that were first outlined by Georges Dumézil,[9][10] connections which are attested in early Roman culture and more broadly in the substructure of Indo-European culture at large. 13-9 a.C. Tellus (or Pax) Panel, Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace) 9 B.C.E. PLAY. A closer look at the Ara Pacis The so-called Tellus Panel. The East Wall contains a badly preserved scene of a female warrior (bellatrix), possibly Roma, apparently sitting on a pile of weapons confiscated from the enemy, thus forcing peace upon them by rendering them unable to make war. The 3 m tall altar itself stands on a 6 x 7 m podium & has relief scenes depicting Vestal Virgins, priests & sacrificial animals. Tellus/Pax panel of Ara Pacis; Roman, 13-9 BCE This is one of the enclosure walls at the eastern entrance of the Altar of Peace. Altar of Augustus, 13 - 9 BCE, marble, Rome. For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. The Mythology of the Ara Pacis Augustae: Iconography and Symbolism. (Ara Pacis Museum, Rome) (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) The better preserved panel of the east wall depicts a seated female figure (above) who has been variously interpreted as Tellus (the Earth), Italia (Italy), Pax (Peace), as well as Venus. As Charles Brian Rose has noted, "The variable value of the Eastern costume and the uneasy interaction of Trojan and Parthian iconography can make it difficult to determine whether one is viewing the founders of the Romans or their fiercest opponents."[24]. Goddess Tellus Relief, Ara Pacis -- Augustae Ara Pacis, built between 13 and 9 BCE to celebrate Augustan peace. Nevertheless, much debate has taken place over many of these figures, including Augustus, Agrippa, Tiberius, Julia, and Antonia. Inez Scott Ryberg "The Procession of the Ara Pacis", Toynbee (1953), 85; J. Benario (1960), 348; Polacco (1960–61), 620–21. art to me is created for a [1] Although he was identified correctly in 1903, Petersen, Strong, and Stuart-Jones initially saw the figure as the rex sacrorum. It was consecrated after 4 years of construction on January 30, 9 BC to celebrate the peace and prosperity in the Roman Empire after Augustus' victories,and to act as a visual reminder of the Julio-Clau… (Ara Pacis Museum, Rome) (photo: Steven Zucker, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) The better preserved panel of the east wall depicts a seated female figure (above) who has been variously interpreted as Tellus (the Earth), Italia (Italy), Pax (Peace), as well as Venus. [1] This scene has been reconstructed, based on coins that depict such a seated Roma. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. The monument was commissioned by the Roman Senate on July 4, 13 BC to honour the return of Augustus to Rome after three years in Hispania and Gaul[1][2] and consecrated on January 30, 9 BC. The South Wall has seen a great deal of scholarship and the greatest number of academic debates. These figures fall into four categories: lictors (men carrying fasces, bodyguards of magistrates); priests (three of the four major collegia – Pontifices, Septemviri, and Quindecimviri): women and children (generally from the imperial family, represented in portraiture); and attendants (a few anonymous figures necessary for religious purposes).